Smarter Cambridge Transport

Why Government Policies Are Required To Cope With The Coming Transport Revolution

In 2018, Alex Rand, a student at Hills Road Sixth Form College in Cambridge, wrote the paper below for his OCR (Oxford Cambridge and RSA) Level 3 Extended Project Qualification (EPQ). Smarter Cambridge Transport was pleased to support the work by providing advice and being an interview subject. In summer 2019 Alex received a 100% mark for his project.

Alex’s dissertation is reproduced on this page, along with a summary video. The full EPQ submission contains considerably more elements, including a podcast version, the full Project Background document (with Summary, Review and Evidence), project diary, project Gantt Chart, Reading List (with Source Validity Assessments), and Project Progression Record. To see these, please visit Alex’s EPQ website here.

Why Government Policies Are Required To Cope With The Coming Transport Revolution

Alex Rand, Hills Road Sixth Form College, Cambridge


There are four independent areas of technological and organisational development in transport, which combined will probably create a transport revolution. Writers and researchers are predicting wildly differing outcomes. However, a lot of work all over the world has begun to develop a likely timeline. Ensuring that societies benefit as much as possible from the transport revolution will require governments and local authorities to develop policies and guidelines quickly. Many such principles have already been suggested.

Introduction: The Four Possible Areas Of Development

Driverless cars are one of the most exciting areas of technology at the moment, with billions of pounds being invested in research and development worldwide. The path to their implementation has been clearly mapped out by governments and professional bodies.

Automation Levels (Society of Automotive Engineers, USA) [1]

Automated Driving Deployment to 2030 (Horiba MIRA, UK) [2]

Although driverless cars are gaining a lot of attention, there are other, equally-important areas of development in transport and the real revolution will occur if most or all of these take place. The US-based Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITPD) adds two more areas of development [3]: the technological change of electric propulsion and the social change of ‘Transportation as a Service’. These three combined would certainly lead to huge changes in the number of vehicles on the road and their environmental impact.

However, there is also a fourth area of development: centralised vehicle monitoring or control. This is often considered as part of driverless technology but should be quite separate. Its libertarian implications make it as much a social issue as a technological one.

With four possible areas of development, we have a more complicated diagram of possible outcomes, depending which combinations actually happen:

Possible permutations of potential transport-related developments

Each of the areas in the diagram represents a different situation which may need its own plans. To take just one example, in the outcome with just “E” and “C”, driverless cars (“D”) and transportation as a Service (“T”) do not become available. This might be due to technological (e.g. uneconomic/impractical) or sociological (e.g. acceptability/legal) reasons. However, even with just electric propulsion and centralised monitoring, we have an interesting combination. Electric propulsion requires a replacement for today’s fuel duty; centralised monitoring provides a way of taxing vehicle use by measuring journey lengths and times.

Put together, all four changes could certainly be described as a transport revolution as significant as the introduction of the motor car in the early 20th century, or the railway in the early 19th. When trying to plan for the future, authorities would be wise to consider this full-scale revolution of all four developments. It is the scenario that we are assuming in this essay.

What makes planning for this transport revolution so important is the high probability of all four areas of development described actually evolving to maturity and gaining universal acceptance.

Driverless Technology

Self-driving or autonomous vehicles are being developed all over the world. While this driverless technology is being led by specialist companies and established automotive manufacturers in the USA, there is also considerable research investment in Europe and the Far East.

In Cambridge, RDM Group is developing a self-driving shuttle service as a technology demonstrator [4][5]. This will run on the busway between Cambridge station and Trumpington Park & Ride, serving the Cambridge Biomedical Campus and passing by the back of Hills Road Sixth Form College.

Apart from the commercial opportunities which are encouraging the development of driverless technology, there are reasons to believe that social pressures will also help. While the public may initially be wary, the safety standards demanded before such vehicles become freely available will inevitably be high. With most crashes being caused by driver error (94% in the USA) [6], a technology which improves on human drivers’ safety levels could offer a big reduction in loss of life on the roads.

Another social barrier often cited as being in the way of driverless technology is that “people like driving”. This is an outdated idea, however. Young people in Great Britain and other countries are driving less now than they did in the early 1990s [7] and researchers say it is unlikely that future generations will re-establish those levels of car use. A transformation to driverless vehicles would not stop human driving from remaining available as a hobby, but one author has described it as a “vestigial skill” which “there would seem to be little point in possessing.” [8]

Centralised Monitoring

Of the four elements in our transport revolution, centralised monitoring is in some ways the most developed of all. This has happened almost invisibly through mobile phone technology. Google Maps, for example, now shows traffic congestion in part by anonymously tracking the position and speed of mobile phones. Adding tracking systems to driverless cars probably just needs the development of the relevant protocols and standards. The biggest barrier may be public acceptance.

Electric Propulsion

A switch to electric propulsion is generally considered to be just a matter of time. Predictions vary for how soon electric cars will represent the majority of sales, but some say as early as 2030 [9], and in any case, some countries have announced bans on selling petrol and diesel cars and vans (from 2040 in the UK) [10].

Transportation as a Service

Finally, we have the switch to sharing transport. This also has a lot of momentum behind it, not least because of the long-term trend for younger generations not to be as concerned about owning physical items. Cars would fit into this move to a rental economy very well. According to the RAC Foundation, the average car is parked at home for 80% of its life, parked elsewhere for 16% and only on the move for 4% of the time [11].

Although the ‘ride sharing’ market has been pioneered by startup companies such as Uber, car manufacturers are entering the market too. Maven was launched by General Motors in the USA in January 2016, and provides “a station-based, self-service portfolio of small-to-large automobiles distributed all over the city”. Maven vehicles are accessed with a phone app, and rates include costs for fuel, insurance, parking, maintenance and unique technology features [12]. With driverless technology, there would be little difference between the Uber and Maven offerings.

In the UK, the Institution of Engineering and Technology has been studying what it calls ‘Connected and Autonomous Vehicles’ and says in a report [13] that due to the costs, these are “unlikely to be personally owned”. Their arrival, it says, “will trigger a more formal model of mobility-as-a-service, where transport is bought when needed, either paid for on demand or as part of a subscription”.

The Great Debate Over The Transport Revolution

An MP from Denmark has written about life in 2030: “When products are turned into services, no one has an interest in things with a short life span. Everything is designed for durability, repairability and recyclability. The materials are flowing more quickly in our economy and can be transformed to new products pretty easily. Environmental problems seem far away, since we only use clean energy and clean production methods. The air is clean, the water is clean and nobody would dare to touch the protected areas of nature because they constitute such value to our well being. In the cities we have plenty of green space and plants and trees all over. I still do not understand why in the past we filled all free spots in the city with concrete.” [14]

The likely transport revolution will play a major part in all this, but it is surely impossible to accurately predict what the impact of that revolution will look like. The New York Times wrote in 2017 that: “Over the next century, (cars) may well alter the built environment as radically as the manually driven car did over the last century.” [15]

Apart from any unpredicted technological developments, there are many social issues which could direct where things go. It is easy to make comparisons with the ‘internet revolution’, but that gave society additional products and services, whereas with transport, developments are set to replace or affect things which many people love.

One academic literature review summarises central questions revolving around “gap acceptance, overtaking behaviour, behaviour at road narrowings, the ability to detect and avoid cyclists taking paths through a junction which conflict with the autonomous vehicle’s path, and the ability of autonomous vehicles to sense and respond to human gestures.” [16] But there are much wider issues than these. It is important for the technologists to remember that many people love their cars, and driving. The American libertarian website National Review describes a ‘war on driving to come’, saying: “The threat to individual freedom that the driverless car is set to pose is at this

stage hard to comprehend. For a century, the automobile has been a bastion of liberty, freeing up almost everybody from the tyranny of other people’s schedules.” [17] If transport developments are politicised into an ill-fitting right/left debate, as has happened with the environmental debate, there could be an aggressive reaction.

On the other hand, advocates of the new technology are saying things like: “You will still be able to ride a horse, and you will still be able to drive a car. But self-driving Luddites will be relegated to side roads with enormous insurance premiums. In the 1920s there was a great nostalgia for the horse and people paid a lot of money to go to a dude ranch to live the fantasy life of an earlier time. Eventually, if you have that nostalgic craving for climbing behind the wheel and pressing clutches and accelerators, you will go to the new dude ranch to live out that fantasy and drive a car yourself down a lonely track.” [18]

Could the ‘Top Gear’ culture of car fascination actually die out? One author has predicted that cars “will become infrastructure — still important, but unseen unless they break down. Nobody will care what anyone drives, no more than they might ponder the manufacturer of elevator cabins or subway rolling stock.” [19] Other commentators disagree, however, saying that even under the predicted scenarios the vehicles we choose, either owned or rented, will remain status symbols: “If you are wealthy, you may commute like rock stars on tour, moving around in an enormous autonomous bus fitted out with an office, shiatsu shower massage, and a treadmill for walking while riding. If you have far less means, you will likely be picked up in something that blurs the distinction between a car and a bus.” [20]

The school of thought that suggests cars will become no more than infrastructure doesn’t mean they’ll be any less intrusive in our lives. A humorous thread on Twitter included the possibility that self-driving cars become “the ideal platform for rolling billboards, which become cheaper and proliferate.” [21]

Resistance may not come just from enthusiastic drivers. Driverless cars may also demand unpopular infrastructure changes to deal with humans on foot. One commentator is reported as saying: “The open spaces that cities like to encourage would end as the barricades go up. And foot movement would need to be enforced with Singapore-style authoritarianism.” [22]

A cycling writer suggests that it would be easier if “instead of spending time analysing a series of images looking for people on bicycles, with a less than perfect rate of success, a car can simply make requests for devices in its vicinity and within milliseconds understand its environment. So here’s my prediction: age-restricted cycle testing and licensing, one piece of mandatory cycling wear, and a jaywalking law.” [23]

Against all of these worries are the many potential outcomes which would be welcomed by the majority of people, and which might be irresponsible for governments to turn down.

Research results [24] have concluded that self-driving vehicles will reduce automobile fatalities and injuries. These may have been on a significant downward trend since the Second World War but nearly 1,800 people were killed and a hundred times as many injured on the roads in Great Britain in 2016 [25]. The time now wasted on driving will be freed up, reducing stress and letting drivers be productive. Senior citizens, the disabled and the young will be able to get around more easily. And without truck drivers, costs associated with moving goods (and their price to customers) could be substantially reduced.

Indeed, the safety argument suggests that society should press ahead with the transport revolution before perfecting it. Researchers have found that this could save hundreds of thousands of lives over 30 years. “Waiting for the cars to perform flawlessly is a clear example of the perfect being the enemy of the good,” according to one researcher. [26]

Mapping Out A Pathway Of Developments

When considering the four areas of development in the transport revolution, it is hard to predict the extent to which each will gain acceptance, or how long each might take to happen. It is therefore even harder to predict what their combined effects might be. However, if we are assuming that all four will proceed fairly steadily, some sort of pathway can be mapped out. The Regional Plan Association in the US has created a prospective timeline in four phases, from 2017 to beyond 2040 [27]:

Timeline of Transport Developments (RPA, USA) [28]

In this scenario, the first stage to 2022 features a continued reduction in car ownership in urban areas in more economically developed countries, with automated driving technology developing rapidly. The next five years sees fully autonomous vehicles on the road, but the mix of these and legacy vehicles results in uneven traffic improvements. A shared ride is one-third of the cost of a private, on-demand vehicle, making it an extremely attractive option. From 2027 to 2040 autonomous vehicles are flexibly and dynamically routed, so they require less road space, and beyond this, land use is permanently altered, with parking space permanently removed and repurposed.

The Institution of Engineering Technology in the UK agrees that new vehicles will behave very differently from the way traffic flows today. Lift sharing and the platooning of vehicles in convoy will have a big impact on the use of road space. It predicts that there will be a long period where unautomated vehicles, pedestrians and cyclists will have to share the roads with the new technology vehicles until fully automated vehicles “become the norm in the 2030s — something that both CAVs and traditional road users will have to adapt to.” [29]

Perhaps the most difficult prediction is on how this will affect public transport as we know it. Edward Leigh of the campaign group and think-tank Smarter Cambridge Transport points out that: “Self driving cars can’t replace public transport because it’s not space-efficient enough.

When you think of the number of people you can push through a train station, such as the 11 million who pass through Cambridge station each year, you simply can’t move that many people in their private metal boxes.”

It may be that we need new terminology, as today’s ‘private car vs public bus’ distinction becomes completely blurred into a spectrum of rented vehicles of varying sizes, personally hired or shared.

At a seminar in Cambridge in November 2017, it was pointed out that the typical cost of a hybrid bus is currently about £250,000, and quite a lot of 12-seater self-driving pods could eventually be manufactured for that money. Without a driver, these can be run a lot more cheaply and for longer hours. [30]

It seems that some people studying the impacts of self-driving vehicles seem to be focusing almost entirely on passenger cars, and not enough on other types of vehicles that will soon pop up. Much of the road space in cities as well as motorways is occupied by large goods trucks, delivery vans and refuse vehicles. These could be transformed by automated technology just as quickly as passenger cars. [31]

Another prediction [32], from officials in Florida, USA, is not so optimistic in terms of the impact of the transport revolution on the urban environment. It suggests that initial changes will be little more than unseen technology adjustments to traffic signals to tell self-driving cars to stop at a red light. But by the mid-2020s it reckons there will be fewer riders on buses or trains, as people shift to self-driving vehicles that will be on the road all the time – what it describes as “the bad part of the autonomous vehicle explosion”. Self-driving cars will avoid traffic congestion by finding alternate routes through side streets, which is not good news for local neighbourhoods. Eventually, the prediction says, autonomous vehicles will saturate roadways, forcing changes in road design. One winner however may be the cul-de-sac: safer and quieter than ever before [33].

So while we can imagine an outcome from the transport revolution which vastly improves life in our cities, there is clearly the potential for things to go wrong. This can be illustrated by looking at different aspects of the urban landscape and their potential transformation.


Parking is a huge overhead on infrastructure and a major contributor to congestion in cities, whether it’s by narrowing streets, the typical problem in Europe, or by the acceptance of huge, expensive car parks, as is the usual solution in North America. A reduction or elimination of parking requirements is often cited as a potential benefit of self-driving cars, as they could drive away to a more convenient location once they’d deposited their passengers. One study in the USA notes that 30% of the traffic in the central business districts of San Francisco and Los Angeles traffic is due to drivers looking for parking spaces. [34] Arguably, however, Transportation as a Service would have an even greater impact than self-driving technology on reducing the costs and problems of parking, while the best outcome of all would be from a combination of the two. But it could also become a victim of its own success: there’s a problem in London and other cities already with the increase in traffic created by Uber and similar operators [35]; making travel easier naturally creates more demand.

Economics will probably be the major force in any changes. There is a great potential to release land value wherever large parking facilities exist in central locations. Self-driving technology will provide opportunities to locate parking areas further out of town, perhaps in retail parks. Even where car parks remain, there will be capacity benefits; it has been suggested that around 2m2 per space could be saved per vehicle with self-driving cars [36]. As people do not need to get in and out of the vehicles where they park, there is no need for door opening space.

Although car parks as we know them could disappear, they could also become repurposed. If electric propulsion takes off, they could serve as refuelling stations, perhaps designed so as to only allow access to self-driving vehicles [37]. For delivery and commercial driving units, these facilities could also be like large shipping ports where vehicles can load and unload goods, recharge and leave. Robotic systems might be available to carry out maintenance and cleaning. Charging stations and induction pads may also be commonplace on the street, and a vital part of the utility infrastructure of the near future [38].


The urban streetscape could be transformed at every level by the transport revolution. The disappearance of traffic lights will be a prominent signal of being in the age of self-driving cars, which will not need signs to guide the way they move. Transportation experts are creating computer simulations to show how this might work, even without centralised control of every vehicle. [39] In one model, each crossroads has an intersection management system that senses approaching traffic from all directions and communicates with them individually. When each self-driving car is a few hundred metres away, it informs the intersection management system of the route it intends to take, and receives instructions how to avoid the other vehicles.

In a city dominated by self-driving and shared cars, buildings and development will need to be designed around quite different patterns of traffic flow. There will be space demands for simultaneous drop-offs and pick-ups at most sites [40], at the expense of longer-term parking.

Some people have predicted that self-driving cars will mix in with other street users comfortably, and contribute to a breaking down of the segregation currently necessary between motor vehicles, cyclists and pedestrians, which did not really exist until the 20th century. Perhaps streets will no longer have kerbs, with all users mingling in a slow-speed environment, made possible by geofencing technology [41]. Others believe that in the short to medium term, the introduction of self-driving vehicles might require a quite different reworking of the available space, with a designated lane for ‘robotic’ vehicles. [42] Alternatively, different classes of street user might not even have their own permanently dedicated spaces: “flex zones” could be turned over to different services and vehicles for different times of day [43]. In rush hour, more lanes would be open to vehicles. During heavy delivery hours, there could be kerb space dedicated to delivery vehicles. At night, street space next to bars could be dedicated to picking up and dropping off, or even become outdoor seating areas.

Roads are now largely designed to accommodate human error, with guard rails, lane markings, signage, etc. [44] But if self-driving technology can eliminate human error, there would be no need to worry about drivers crossing over kerbs, and colliding with pedestrians, trees or infrastructure. Lanes could be narrower, and the removal of ‘obstructions’ like traffic lights and guard rails might provide more space for pedestrian use, as well as street trees, bike lanes and public spaces. This is already being demonstrated in streets such as Hills Road in Cambridge, where the motor vehicle lanes have been reduced to their absolute minimum width to accommodate spacious cycle lanes.


The greatest economic impact of the transport revolution will be on where people live. If self-driving cars designed for commuting can make daily journeys more pleasant, people will be happy to live further away. Many people would rather spend an hour watching TV or answering email than 30 minutes concentrating on driving. This will change people’s decisions on where to live. It is already demonstrated in the behaviour of workers living in San Francisco and commuting to Silicon Valley in employer-provided, wifi-enabled shuttles. Despite a 2.5 hours roundtrip, with no shortage of good jobs in San Francisco proper, 10,000 people make this commute every day [45]. Would they do so if they had to drive themselves or use conventional public transport? Clearly their employers do not think so.

It’s a huge challenge for public transport, which will find it hard to compete, and the property price premium enjoyed by areas close to good public transport may be lost quite quickly. [46] Indeed, just as house prices rise when an area is approved for public transport improvements, rather than 10 years later when it finally gets them, they may fall as soon as the potential eventual impact of self-driving cars is realised – which could be at any moment. [47] At the same time, cities could become nearly as clean as rural areas. Electric propulsion will have massively beneficial effects on air quality in the urban environment, and if congestion can be reduced, it would become much healthier and pleasant to spend long periods of time there [48].

Today, cities often incentivise development close to areas served by public transport (such as the high-density building around Cambridge railway station). With driverless cars, areas that are further away will become more attractive for employment and living, so cities should perhaps plan for developments there now. [49]

In rural areas, self-driving cars may be more useful than in cities. Older people living in the countryside are in many ways the best possible market for the technology. But it is likely to be in investors’ interests to concentrate where the money is [50]. There is a direct analogy here with the implementation and usefulness of broadband communications.

In between the city and countryside, in the suburbs, streets may still have plenty of traffic, but pedestrians may not live in fear of it any longer. If through traffic can be restricted to specific routes, other streets can be largely pedestrianised. One architect in the USA has written that “cul-de-sacs can become the space for temporary pools or community centres, and garages, now without cars, could become the new front porch, opening up to create a more lively streetscape” [51].

Developing A Set Of Aims And Principles

All of the elements of the transport revolution have potential positive benefits for all, and the greatest benefit to society would appear to be from all four taking place. The ITPD study [52] quoted at the start suggests that not only would we gain the most cumulative social benefits (less energy use, fewer cars, better use of urban space), this would come with the lowest total costs. The catch is that it also requires “aggressive policymaking at all levels.” Society can gain environmental benefits and better places to live, but only with good planning and strong policy support. [53]

Governments and councils will need to work together. There is no doubt that demand management policies such as road pricing need to be investigated and potentially enabled. [54] How will governments deal with the loss of existing car-related revenue such as fuel duty? If a reduced need for parking could reshape urban land use it should be part of long-term local planning, not something which can be addressed as it happens. [55] Transport affects urban and national structures, “influencing where people live and work, housing prices, the distances travelled to work, as well as people’s health and happiness.” [56] Cities around the world are already seeing that self-driving technology and Transport as a Service needs to be regulated properly, with a goal of achieving a ‘healthier society’ [57], not accommodating the aims of technology businesses.

Consultants Steer Davies Gleave have written that “The public sector has the opportunity to determine where and how (self-driving vehicles) shape our urban environment, promote social inclusion, directly influence the market acceptance, and limit the negative consequences on the transport network.” [58]

It is encouraging to discover how many groups are already working on the opportunities and problems, and governments would be wise to learn from the work being done. However, some glaring problems are also being highlighted. In 2017, the Bloomberg Aspen initiative on Cities and Autonomous Vehicles [59] surveyed the world to find cities piloting autonomous vehicles. Of the 59 found, zero appeared to involve an architect or urban designer. [60] Yet it’s not hard to find architectural companies thinking about the problems which need to be addressed right now. One firm is starting to build garages in commercial developments with horizontal floors and an exterior, rather than interior ramp, so the structures can be more easily converted from a parking space to a traditional office space. [61] Kieran Perkins, a registered Architect and Associate at 5th Studio in Cambridge, says that there’s a major role for architects in terms of new development: “In large masterplans where you’re looking at a 20-year timescale, your planning approach does need to be flexible; there are ways that can be done within the existing planning system, but it’s down to the team putting in the scheme to be mindful of that and bring those in charge of planning along with them.”

If not pre-empted by the authorities, demands for regulation may come from neighbourhood associations. In a cul-de-sac where self-driving cars will (presumably) not run over children on bikes, there is a potential for the roadway to become a family-friendly space. Will residents be demanding their roads are restricted to self-driving vehicles in the same way that they are already demanding parking space be limited to their own vehicles? The public could spill out onto the road in “a true display of folk urbanism where discarded vehicular space becomes public space.” [62] Edward Leigh of Smarter Cambridge Transport says: “Where we now reserve two metres each side of the street to store vehicles is a huge waste of valuable urban space. In inner-city streets where houses front on to the pavement, there’s nowhere for bins, nowhere to park bikes and so on. You can see parts of the streets being allocated for underground rubbish storage as they’ve done at Eddington (in Cambridge), play areas, pocket parks and the like.”

Anyone working on strategic plans reaching into the 2030s should already be considering the impact on land use in city centres. If cars are shared they may not need conventional parking space, but might they need somewhere to idle between jobs? [63]

Many of the commercial organisations which are set to profit from the transport revolution seem to have realised that they need to take governments, local authorities and citizens with them. Their success depends on society not putting up barriers. In Autumn 2017, three pieces of work were published which contain interesting recommendations and principles which could be localised and built on.

A consortium of transport experts led by Zipcar Co-Founder Robin Chase devised “10 Shared Mobility Principles for Livable Cities” [64], which was signed by a range of organisations from around the world.

Many of these principles are noble aims to promote equitable access to transport, engaging with stakeholders and prioritising people over vehicles. One principle is that self-driving vehicles in dense urban areas “should be operated only in shared fleets”. This could be hard to sell, both to vehicle manufacturers and to members of the public who like ‘the right to own’, and illustrates the difficulties involved.

An extensive piece of work came from a distinguished urban research and advocacy organization in the USA. RPA works in the New York/New Jersey/Connecticut metropolitan region and its latest Regional Plan is only the fourth in 90 years. “New Mobility – Autonomous Vehicles and the Region” [65] sets technology, accessibility and the transport workforce. It contains 24 principles and recommendations for action in its summary.

Finally, also from the USA, the National Association of City Transportation Officials published “Blueprint for Autonomous Urbanism”. [66] This contains a long list of progressive recommendations, including 6 guiding principles.

From these three pieces of work it is possible to compile a combined set of 20 aims and principles which governments, local authorities and urban planners might find useful. They are:

  • Prioritise people over vehicles.
  • Ensure that self-driving vehicles are safer than human-driven vehicles.
  • Develop a clear set of open data standards nationally to give authorities, industry and the public the data needed to manage developments.
  • Improve the communications infrastructure to support real-time street management.
  • Devise the ability to limit the overall number of vehicles in areas of a city at certain times of day.
  • Discourage low-occupancy, long-distance vehicle use through fees based on the number of passengers in a vehicle and journey distance.
  • Promote the use of low-occupancy vehicles primarily to link to public transport hubs.
  • Plan developments and their mobility together.
  • Eliminate on-street parking for long-term vehicle storage.
  • Plan to move more with fewer vehicles.
  • Prioritise street space for public transit, pedestrians, bikes, and freight.
  • Provide sufficient kerb space for increased pick-up/drop-offs and deliveries.
  • Use geofencing to implement volume limits or to restrict vehicles from certain areas during certain times of day.
  • Encourage self-driving vehicles in dense urban areas to be operated only in shared fleets.
  • Encourage zero-emission, low carbon vehicles.
  • Create seamless and easy fare payment systems.
  • Subsidise shared services for low-income residents, senior citizens and those with disabilities.
  • Assist in the retraining of workers displaced from the transport sector.
  • Ensure shared services serve all communities.
  • Use the expertise of architects, environmentalists and data scientists as strongly as civil engineers.


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